Monday, May 25, 2020

Renewable Energy And Natural Gas - 1123 Words

Finally, the last form of power generation to be examined before the moral analysis is renewable energy, for example wind and solar power. Renewable energy is the least established method of generating electricity and is therefore still heavily tied up in research. By definition, renewable energy sources have a theoretically limitless amount of energy production since they do not deplete any resources through their use. This means that for as many years as humans inhabit the earth they can use renewable energies, such as solar, wind, hydro-power or others, which has much more potential than the 100 years for coal and natural gas. Renewable energy also has fewer negative environmental impacts since it does not directly release any†¦show more content†¦One utilitarian approach used to determine which act is most ethical, is cost-benefit analysis. This analysis compares the potential benefits against the costs (financial, physical risks etc.) of possible decisions. For choosing which energy source the public should invest money in and engineers should invest research in, the criterion detailed above are compared. For cost-benefit analysis, shown in Table 1, the effect on future generations is incorporated at the same value as the effect on current generations. For the cost criterion, renewable energy is currently the least beneficial in regards to price to the public, cost of updating current technologies, researching new technologies, and implementing new infrastructure. Natural gas has lower costs related to infrastructure and technology changes than renewable energy, but when compared to coal, it has higher public cost as well as higher implementation costs. Consequently, for the greatest amount of happiness for people, which is related to lower costs, coal is the best energy source. Furthermore, natural gas has a much higher efficiency than renewables and coal, which have similar efficiencies. Human fulfilment, coming from happiness in the utilitaria n theory, relates to the best/most effective use of resources, i.e. people do not like to waste time or money. Therefore, natural gas, withShow MoreRelatedRenewable Forms Of Energy And Natural Gas1131 Words   |  5 PagesMichigan in the upper Midwest of the United States currently relies heavily on nonrenewable energy sources including fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. As we striveto reduce the negative impacts from the use of nonrenewable resources and from our growing population, local and state governments are exploring new, renewable forms of energy, as well ashow to increase demand through conservation. Not all energy alternatives are suited for all locations, so the advantages and disadvantages of currentRead MoreSample Resume : Renewable A ,Äà ©1682 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"RENEWABLE A‎N‎D N‎O‎N-RENEWABLE RESO‎URC‎E‎S† D‎I‎GITA‎L A‎S‎SIGNMENT -1 S‎ub‎mitt‎ed f‎or t‎he co‎u‎rs‎e: En‎gin‎eeri‎ng Ch‎e‎mi‎stry (C‎H‎Y1002) B‎y Sri‎k‎a‎r K‎a‎livarapu 1‎6B‎IT0078 V‎IT UNIVERSIT‎Y, Vel‎lore N‎a‎me of facu‎l‎t‎y: M‎r‎s BA‎RN‎A‎LI MA‎I‎T‎I (S‎C‎H‎OOL O‎F A‎DVANC‎E‎D S‎CI‎ENCE‎S) A‎ug‎ust, 2016 1) Wh‎at i‎s Energy? 2) T‎y‎pe‎s of Energy Sources i) Non-Renewable Sources of Energy ii) Renewable Sources of Energy 3) Non-Renewable Sources of Energy i) Cr‎u‎d‎e o‎i‎lRead MoreRenewable Energy Sources For Fossil Fuels1240 Words   |  5 Pagesin order to provide us energy. Almost everything we use nowadays consumes power in some form, and in tandem we rely on energy. Fossil fuels have become the go to resource for providing power. 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Being the world’s primary sources of energy, fossil fuel experience advantagesRead MoreEnergy Resources And Renewable Energy1240 Words   |  5 PagesEveryone uses a lot of power for lighting, heating, machines, movements, and so much more. All of that energy has to come from an energy supply. Some energy resources are renewable, while others are non-renewable. Energy has various forms and is a very essential part of our everyday lives. In my house, I always try to conserve energy when I can. I try an hot water by using a lower flow shower head and very rarely use the bath tub which does waste a lot of hot water. When buying light bulbs, I onlyRead MoreHow Power Relations Influence The Growth Of The Renewable Energy Industry1513 Words   |  7 Pagesthe growth of the renewable energy industry. Student Name : Student Number : â€Æ' Executive Summary This concise report summarizes the present analysis and important issues and provides better recommendation. In this report I have discussed the short and long term benefits and risks for the renewable energy industry. I have considered public education that allows noise levels and visual amenity to encourage establishment wind farms and other sources of renewable energy. And also a nationalRead MoreCanada s Energy Policy Should Be Beneficial1109 Words   |  5 Pagesbiggest energy producer in the world. Currently Canada is ranked 5th in regards to its production of energy in the world. Canada’s energy policy, should revolve around the natural resources and their optimum use to produce cheap and clean energy, which should be environmental friendly. Our policy should be beneficial for all the Canadians living in different parts of the country and that the policy should not discriminate among the provinces. Canada is also the biggest consumer of the energy in theRead MoreRenew able Energy : An Source Of Stable And Resilient Energy Provider1169 Words   |  5 PagesThere are few criteria that must be met in order for energy to be called â€Å"renewable†, first the sources cannot be finite, second the sources must be carbon neutral, and lastly it must not pollute the environment. Most of the renewable energy either comes directly or indirectly from the sun and the other lone source is from the earth. The example of an indirect source from the sun can be wind, tidal waves, and bioenergy. After being aware of the bounds of the fossil fuel, more countries around theRead MoreEssay Impacts Of An Energy Plan945 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ Impacts of an Energy Plan Juanita Stanberry SCI/275 Suzette Mackenzie March 26, 2015 My dearest great-great grand-children: The finding of this letter explaining the best option for a long-term energy sustainability plan is no accident, and if you have opened a time capsule as directed, this letter is one hundred years old and the year is two thousand and fifteen (2015). The nation’s current energy situation is in bad shape. We have nearly depleted the planets resources of fossil fuels thatRead MoreDepletion of Non Renewable Resources of Energy1422 Words   |  6 PagesA  non-renewable resource  is a  natural resource  which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can  sustain  its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them.  Fossil fuels  (such as  coal,  petroleum, and  natural gas), types of nuclear power (uranium) and certain  aquifers  are examples. Natural resources such as  coal,  petroleum,  oil  and  natural gas  take

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Islam The Base Of It All - 1731 Words

Islam, the base of it all. The word Islam means â€Å"submission to the will of God and obedience to his law†. Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God, Allah, and that Allah is wise and merciful (Gregory, Roberts, and Tarver 125). According to the Muslims, God sent a number of people who were prophets to live among mankind to teach mankind to live according to Allah’s law. In the 7th century a new religion known as Islam came about. Muslims have believed that Islam was introduced about 1400 years ago in Mecca, Arabia, a little known region at the time, and was revealed by a merchant, Muhammad, who was a Prophet that became very popular amongst the Muslims (Gregory, Roberts, and Tarver 125). In 610, Muhammad began to receive messages from Allah and Jabril. A few years later he began to start sharing these messages with family, friends, and anyone who would listen to what he had to say (Gregory, Roberts, and Tarver 125). The Quran, a religious text that was brought about in the 7th century, became the Muslims religious word. To a Muslim, the Quran is the word of God. It is the literal word of God because it was communicated to Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Gregory, Roberts, and Tarver 125). For a Muslim, this is the ultimate source of authority because it is directly from God. The Quran was â€Å"born of a process of recitation and writing† (Gregory, Roberts, and Tarver 125). This was the reason the Quran was called as such. TheShow MoreRelatedAllam Iqbal1329 Words   |  6 PagesPakistan was the consciousness of the Muslims in the historical perspective of the south Asian sub-continent that they were a separate nation on the basis of the Islamic ideology. No doubt Islamic ideology is the base of ideology of Pakistan so the basic fundamentals of Islam are also the bases of the Ideology of Pakistan. Allama Iqbal amp; Ideology of Pakistan Allama Iqbal was the person who for the first time gave the concept of a separate state for the Muslims keeping in view the Two Nation TheoryRead MoreMedia s Portrayal Of Islamic Extremists During The Middle East1178 Words   |  5 PagesPerception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media. Social development led to the spread of the media, especially in modern democratic societies such as the U.S., revealed in Media Affecting Upon or Affected By Foreign Policy: The Case of Pakistan from the Institute of Communication Studies University of the Punjab (Eijaz). However, the media’s censored ideas affects public perceptions Islam and Muslims (MeÃ… ¡ić, The Perception of Islam and MuslimsRead MoreThe Muslim Culture Essay1464 Words   |  6 Pageshumans. Someone that is a Muslim only has an Islamic belief. This word originated in Arabia where this whole culture developed (BBC â€Å"Islam†). Islam followers, or Musli ms, were introduced to their culture from the Prophet Muhammad (BBC â€Å"Islam†). The word Islam comes up very often, but who knows what it means? It is said to be the â€Å"submission to the will of God (BBC â€Å"Islam†).† Majority of the U.S. population today see Muslims as bad people only because a certain group attacked the United States. We,Read MoreTerrorism, I Am A Muslim And I Am Against It1461 Words   |  6 Pagesreceive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve† This is how Islam inculcates Muslims not to judge others, because obviously it’s the Lord who does that. Despite this verse and many other verses in Quran which promote for peace and love among humans, still people combine Islam with terror. I have seen many false allegations about Islam in the media. All that made me wonder, did I understand my religion wrong? What really interests me is whenever I look forRead MoreThe Most Domina nt And Influential Empires1444 Words   |  6 Pagesrulers overall had a negative impact on Islam and ultimately led to their fall. The Umayyad clan was openly one of Muhammad’s greatest obstructions when he first began to speak publicly about his message. They knew Islam could threaten their current standing as the most affluent and controlling clan in Mecca. The Umayyads, originally led by Abu Sufyan, were primarily a merchant family of the Quraysh tribe who resided in Mecca. At the beginning they were against Islam, but they converted under MuhammadRead MoreMuslim Women As A Symbol Of Oppression856 Words   |  4 PagesIn the past decade, Islam has been viewed as a male dominant religion. Many people in the west proclaim that Muslim women are forced to wear and do things out of their own will and, therefore, the western society perceives Muslim women as a symbol of oppression. The main subject of controversy is the Islamic veil. In addition, the west proclaims Islam to be a sexist religion as the Muslim women are not held equal to men including a limited amount of women’s rights in Islam. In th e Deepa Kumar articleRead MoreThe Religions Of Islam, Hinduism, And Buddhism1241 Words   |  5 Pageswill discuss the major religions of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism and how these faiths connect to politics of nations. Islam has always been a very mixed within state and society as a whole, with no true line between church and state. Islam began in the Arabia by the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century, and is the second largest religion in the world today. Muslims are the followers of the Islam and believe in only on God, or Allah. Muslims base their beliefs on their holy book theRead More Comparing Christianity and Islam Essay1573 Words   |  7 PagesComparing Christianity and Islam   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Christianity and Islam are two of the fastest growing religions, and they both have a lot in common. In this essay I will explain their differences and similarities, their messages, how they treat their believers and other religions, their historical relationship, and other topics along these lines.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I will start this essay by explaining Christianity, and many things about it. The word â€Å"Christianity† itself, means â€Å"Believer in Christ.† If you areRead MoreA Look at Prominent Worldviews1349 Words   |  6 Pageseverything through the filter of glasses. Supposedly, world view can affect one very much. The fact that Muslims goes to Mecca or Christians going to church every week or the mere choice between chocolate bar and ice cream are all affected by world view. The Christian world view bases everything to the scripture, the Bible. Christians say that humans are innately evil because Adam and Eve were kicked out from the Garden of Eden. Christians also emphasizes that it is only through Jesus for one to achieveRead MoreComparing And Contrasting Christianity And Islam872 Words   |  4 PagesComparing and Contrasting Christianity and Islam Religion is a guide to live a life that offers a fixed set of morals, as well as something to hold onto in times of misfortune and remarkable miracles. It is something that one will always grasp for, obey, and learn from as they carry on with their everyday lives. Christianity, which stands as the most practiced religion in the world, and Islam, which stands second, both portray how something that starts off so small can grow to enormous

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Science Behind Climate Change The Earth s Atmosphere

Science Behind Climate Change The planet’s system experiences a flow of energy either inside or outside of it. The balance between these movements determines the earth’s temperatures. The sun releases energy that is absorbed into the crust resulting in a warm climate. The earth does not warm in the event where the sun’s energy gets reflected back into space. There is a cold climate that results from the release of absorbed energy back into space (Revkin, 2002). Many factors attribute to variations in earth’s energy balance. They are either natural or man-made and include changes in the sun’s energy accessing the earth. Additionally, it could be variations in the reflectivity of the atmosphere and the surface of the earth or changes occurring in the greenhouse effect. The latter has an impact on the heat amount contained in the earth’s atmosphere. Scientists argue that climate changes witnessed in the 19700s were consequences of natural causes such as disparity in solar energy, volcanic eruptions, or even the natural change occurring in greenhouse gas concentrations. However, recent climate changes are as a result of a combination of natural causes and human activities (Cooper, 1996). Impact of Climate Change Life on earth has transformed significantly following climate change. Every corner of the universe is experiencing a shift in seasons, high temperatures, as well as increased sea levels. As all this is happening, living things remain hopeful that the universe shallShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Climate Change1769 Words   |  7 PagesIf we are going to look at the consensus on climate change we should start by defining which group of people is supposed to be reaching that consensus. All scientists are supposed to know all there is to know about every field of science; 17,000 scientists signed a petition saying theres no convincing evidence that greenhouse gases will disrupt the earths climate; 31,000 scientists are saying that global warming is beneficial. A lot a meteorologist become weather forecasters or pilots or teachersRead MoreThe Astounding and Indisputable Surrounding Scientific Evidence Global Warming938 Words   |  4 Pages With increased greenhouse gasses, the eart h’s temperature is warming. The earth is also responding to solar outputs seen in ice cores sampled from Greenland, Antarctica. In addition, sea levels are rising rapidly compared to years prior. â€Å"Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century.† (Climate change: How do we know? n.d., para. 6) Not only are ocean levels rising, ocean temperaturesRead MoreThe Physics Of The Earth s Seasons1530 Words   |  7 Pagesof the sun s rotation around the Earth, but there is much more involved than what people assume. The Earth s seasons are affected by many different factors such as the influence of different hemispheres, rotation of the sun, and greenhouse gases. They will also continue to change over time. The climate has a huge effect on the seasons and the population. The Earth s seasons end up having a ripple effect on people, plants, animals, and agric ulture that helps feed the world. Climate effects peopleRead MoreGlobal Climate Change : How Will It Effect Me? Essay1344 Words   |  6 Pagesglobal Climate change - how will it effect me ? Introduction Climate change is one of the biggest topics this generation will face, it is up to us to decide what conditions we want people generations ahead of ourselves to live in. I am going to show the science behind what is happening, but also how it effects me and other individuals in society and how they understand it. The Science and causes There is 1,260,000,000,000,000,000,000 liters of water on earth and about 70% of that is situatedRead MoreThe Issue Of Global Warming1652 Words   |  7 Pagesplanet. Many other scientists merely assume that the general population is acquainted with the science behind the atmosphere, which results in many people disagreeing because they simply do not understand how the buildup of excess carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere could contribute to a major fluctuation in global weather patterns. Others are aware of the situation, but are unwilling to make changes because their focus lies elsewhere.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A common viewpoint that frequently opposes theRead MoreClimate Change is a Natural Phenomenon1556 Words   |  7 Pages Climate change has been an extremely controversial topic in recent history and continues to create much debate today. Many questions concerning climate change’s origins and its potential affect on the globe are not fully understood and remain unanswered. What is climate change? Is climate change happening? Is it a natural cycle of the world or are there other catalysts involved such as human activity? What proof is there? What data correlations show climate change is accelerated by humansRead MoreGlobal Warming Is False1059 Words   |  5 PagesIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a summary that blamed global warming on CO2 released into the atmosphere by humans. With scientist backing claims that CO2 is causing global warming, the majority of Americans have made the decision that global warming is in fact true. But what Americans are not exposed is the scientist that claim climate change is part of Earth s cycle, and that it right on schedule. The IPCC found that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is causing the rise inRead MoreThe Impact Of Climate Change On Rising Sea Levels1601 Words   |  7 Pages Research Paper The Impact of Climate Change on Rising Sea Levels Over the past century, changes in the climate have affected our sea levels. From global warming to man made causes, these factors contribute into one of the most predictable catastrophic disasters. While rising sea levels can lead to a flooding disaster, there are other consequences that are impacted due to this component that can affect the whole planet. Changes in the climate have been an on going critical issue that hasRead MoreThe World s The Destiny Of Life1601 Words   |  7 Pages and a bit of the results of continues with manhandle of the earth in his book The Destiny of Life. While a couple people may ensure deadness on the subject, an unsafe environmental deviation and critical data exhibiting yearly additions in overall temperature have been conveying all through the media and analyzed in schools and workshops around the world. While there might make countries that don t fathom an unnatural weather change or how individuals add to it, the made countries that are theRead MoreThe Causes for Global Warming1538 Words   |  7 PagesIt was a dark morning that Sunday, it was the 28th of August of 2005. Douglas and his family heard a storm was coming, so they went to his mother-in-law ´s house, as they always did when there were storms. They were there, and Douglas went to the bay behind the house to check the level of the wat er. It was too high, and the wind was getting stronger, so he went to warn his wife, daughter, and mother-in-law. As he was heading back, the roof of the house collapsed. None of the three women survived.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Australian Computer Society Code of Professional Conduct

Question: Use the same ethical dilemma or ethically questionable situation that you identified in your first assignment.Undertake further research about your chosen case to assist you in analysing and discussing it in your essay.Analyse the ethical dilemma using the Australian Computer Society Code of Professional Conduct. Answer: The Information Technology companies play a greater role in ensuring that they hire employees who meet their ethical standards. The managers of the organizations ensure that they manage the tasks undertaking in the institutions. They should act as role models to the workers and other staff members to ensure they perform their duties as instructed. The Human Resource Department should scrutinize the individuals seeking for jobs to make sure that they have the ethics required of the company. On the other hand, it is the role of the organization to teach the employees about the values that are vital. The employees should also maintain their ethical standards in the organization to help run it smoothly and become productive. However, as the individuals perform their duties, they are faced with various ethical dilemmas. The people are forced to make critical decisions concerning the situations that face them. It is advisable that one makes the right decision and that which will not affect the profession of an individual. The discussion outlines about the ethical dilemma that face individuals in various organizations. The employees in different organizations are often faced with the moral dilemma regarding the accessing of the private data. They are supposed to ensure they maintain the privacy of the company information and not give it to other individuals who are not part of the institution. The company data is very critical and is very useful for various processes. The information technology organizations deal with different products such as applications that are used on the mobile devices and the computers. Moreover, they create websites that are used by various companies and businesspersons to market their goods and services to the public. The technology utilized by the organizations is very sophisticated, and many people love to know how they perform their tasks. The data or the process they undertake are highly encrypted to ensure no unauthorized personnel can access them. In addition to that, the access to the buildings is also restricted only to the employees and the staff members whose de tails are in the system (Garber, 2008). However, the competitors from other companies take the advantage of the employees from the organization to get them certain information. The competitors require the data so that they can be able to overtake the team and remain on the market for long by producing products that have some similarity. The data is supposed to be private and confidential in the institution to help it succeed and be productive. The competing agencies find the weakness in several workers and promise them a lot of cash or real jobs if they assist them to get the information they require. The employee is faced with an ethical dilemma on what to do because it is against the ethics to do such an act. It is the mandate of the worker to remain honest and loyal to the company where he or she performs the duties. The code of conduct must be maintained at all costs for one to build his career professionally and become a reliable person (Freeman Peace, 2005). The people working in the companies should ensure that information pertaining the organization is very sensitive and can cause the collapse of a company if accessed by unauthorized individuals. Many of the persons are promised better pay or working conditions if they agree to obtain particular data. It is unethical to give out confidential information to other institutions for personal benefit. The individuals experiencing various difficulties in life are the easily targeted as they can be persuaded very fast if promised substantial cash that can solve their problems. Moreover, the people who are unable to settle their debts are often faced with the ethical on what to do. It is the duty of the workers or any other staff member to follow the code of ethics and remain ethical at all costs. The individual should consider the effects of the decision they make to them and to the organization they are working in to meet their needs. They should also remain competent and be responsible at a ll times (Brennan Johnson, 2004). In conclusion, honesty is highly important in an organization and the people affected with the ethical dilemma should seek guidance from their superiors. The individuals should maintain professionalism throughout their career no matter the challenges they face. The data in an institution should be highly encrypted to prevent unauthorized people from accessing it. Moreover, the individuals who can access the information should remain honest and loyal to the company. The level of integrity should also be maintained to help an individual develop himself. References Brennan, L. L., Johnson, V. E. (2004).Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Hershey, Pa. [u.a.: Information Science Publ. Colomo-Palacios, R. (2013).Enhancing the modern organization through information technology professionals: Research, studies, and techniques. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global (701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 17033, USA. Garber, P. R. (2008).The ethical dilemma. Amherst: HRD. Freeman, L. A., Peace, A. G. (2005).Information ethics: Privacy and intellectual property.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism Essay Example

Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism Essay Margaret Thatcher and her time in British politics have had a profound impact upon not just Britain but on world politics too. Thatcher’s high profile of governance began from May 1979 and she continued to be the Prime Minister of Britain for eleven and half years. During her time in office, Thatcher had been the talk of Britain and the world. The reason being her strong public personality moreover she was judged in terms of her political, social and economic ambitions. Thatcher’s governance led to the political phenomena of Thatcherism. The term Thatcherism obviously derives from Margaret Thatcher but can be defined generally as the system of powerful political beliefs which were based on ‘monetarism and a belief in reducing the power and actions of the state in economy and society’, but also the promotion of the private sector. Thatcherism wasn’t only based around Thatcher’s policies but equally as important on her leadership style, for example the reference made by the Russians to the ‘Iron Lady’. However the concept of Thatcherism was deeply rejected and regarded as a failure by socialists and social groups. This essay intends to assess the two sides of Thatcherism, the success as well the failures. It will also examine Thatcher’s personality and politics, i. e. policies, which contributed to the formation of Thatcherism. The legacy of post-war Conservatism and Thatcher began when the Labour party’s time in office ended inevitably. This was highlighted under James Callaghan’s government. The Labour government faced immense difficulties such as inflation rise, British power cuts and especially in 1979, where the ‘Winter of Discontent’ was a key event. We will write a custom essay sample on Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Winter of Discontent subsequently led to a rash of strikes in crucial public services which deemed that the country was ungovernable. This led to the destruction of Labour’s party image and subsequently forced Callaghan to call an early general election, which paved way to Thatcher’s victory. Labour’s defeat also meant that it would allow Thatcher to ‘reverse the relative decline from which Britain was acknowledged to be suffering’. Furthermore to break from the ‘Post-war consensus’, which characterized Britain’s governing tradition since 1945. The first Thatcher government was probably the most pragmatic; she was elected with a working majority of 43. The early years of Thatcher’s governance, particular attention was paid to the economy. And the intentions of the Conservative government were transparent before they came into power but were particularly successful and appealing amongst the affluent worker social group in 1979, which was used as evidence for the ‘electoral preference for lower taxation rather than higher public spending’. The Conservative party manifesto also highlighted Thatcher’s pledges other than lower taxation which were to restore the health of Britain’s economy by ‘controlling inflation’, to encourage private enterprise and promote individualism. Therefore the period from 1979 was clearly an important one for economy policy as the government were faced with an exceptionally high annual inflation rate of 20 per cent. Furthermore, the economic forecasts of November 1979 highlighted that ‘output in the economy was expected to fall by 3 percent in 1980; unemployment to rise to 2 million by 1981†. This was the aftermath of Callaghan’s struggling Labour government, therefore there needed to be a serious restructuring of the economy. The Conservative’s economic aims were set by Geoffrey Howe, the first Chancellor of the Exchequer under Thatcher, whom introduced the tax-cutting budget of 1979. This programme was underpinned by the doctrine of ‘monetarism’, which is a school of thought based upon the control of the supply of money circulating in the economy and that aims of ‘monetary policy are best met by targeting the growth rate of the money supply’. As a result, her monetarist economic policies started by increasing interest rates to slow the growth of money and increases in various taxes to quell inflation. The battle against inflation was succeeded at reducing inflation from ‘20% to between 4 and 5% percent in the period 1983 to 1987†. It could be said that these monetarist policies and budgets distinguished her from previous governments. The reduction of inflation meant a success for the Conservative party but also a turning point for Thatcherism. Although Thatcher was successful at reducing inflation at the lowest level in 13 years; this was largely achieved by the mass closure of factories and recession. The world recession of 1979 – 81 was felt particularly badly so the rate of unemployment had risen 3 million in 1983. This highlights the impact of Thatcher’s governance had reached to epic proportions already in her first term and also a great failure. It could be argued that the issue of the Falklands war in 1982 led to a recovery in Thatcher’s popularity but more importantly she faced the most challenging crisis of her career. The war which lasted for 74 days for the control over the Falkland Islands was a result from the long running dispute between Argentina and Britain. This was over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands. The invasion demonstrated Thatcher’s sheer toughness and strength. It could also be said that the liberation the Falklands was reckoned as a ‘personal triumph’ and was proved to be the ‘defining moment of her premiership’. The Falklands war and a distrusted divided opposition helped Thatcher win the 1983 general election. And one of Thatcherism’s innovations during her second term was the attitude towards the trade unions. Thatcher was determined to weaken the stranglehold labour unions held over the industries and government in Britain which resulted in enacting the trade union reforms. The main aims of Conservatives were to reduce the ability of the trade unions to challenge the government and stand in the way of economic change and reforms, which broke the traditional relationship with them. This could be highlighted by the uprising of the militant miners in 1984. The miners union and strike was led by Arthur Scargill for a year, with the stated aim of ‘roll back the years of Thatcherism’, as he needed a show of force with large numbers of pickets to stop coal being transported. And also Scargill needed to ensure that the strike held by ensuring that miners did not return to work. On the other hand Thatcher’s attitude throughout the strike was to hold firm and regarded it as ‘more a political insurrection than an industrial dispute; picket violence met police force’. This meant that Scargill’s flying pickets and his resolution to roll back the years of Thatcherism had ended in bitter defeat. The strike was a clear demonstration of the politics of Thatcherism, which were radical, uncompromising but very divisive. Two of the lasting legacies of Thatcherism were arguably the privatisation programmes and the government’s right to buy scheme. The Tories as a party have long upheld the policy of self-reliance from state and Thatcher believed strongly in the freedom of the individual. Therefore the government promoted the privatisation of public owned public services, with it being called â€Å"a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism†. The process of de-nationalisation of state owned industries meant the privatisation of gas, water, electricity and steel, which are a few to name. The privatisations helped to reinforce enterprise, small state, gave individuals the chance to buy shares and increase their wealth. As stated by Holmes, one junior minister thought that ‘the political advent of privatisation was a clear way of influencing the electorate – it was a sensible and popular policy’. Privatisation of council housing was another success of Thatcherism. The ‘right to buy’, as it was commonly called, the policy could be argued that it targeted particularly at non traditional Conservatives. The Thatcher government had foreseen the electoral prospects by the support of those who had bought their homes under the right to buy scheme and who would lose their home under compulsory purchase orders with the return of a Labour government. Inevitably the growth of party de-alignment and class de-alignment grew in the 1980’s as working class voters helped to return a Conservative government. This highlights the changing nature of British voting ethos which was influence by Thatcherism. Apart from the fact that inflation returned again in 1990 to destroy the economy, Thatcher’s implementation of the poll-tax was proving controversial and unpopular. The poll-tax was another classic piece of Thatcherism and it was aimed at exposing high spending Labour councils. It worked not by taxing properties but by levying a tax on the individual people within those households. Therefore, those at the top of the income scale paid little more than middle class and working class voters. These very voters that had voted the Conservatives soon opened revolt with the series of mass disturbances known as the ‘Poll Tax Riots’ in 1990. Thatcher defended the poll tax, which an opinion poll had found 12% favoured it. This highlights as perhaps one of the greatest failures of Thatcherism, which subsequently contributed to Thatcher’s downfall. Another reason to contribute towards Thatcher’s downfall and resignation was the discontentment within the party and also due to her unpopularity. It could be argued that during her years in office, Thatcher had the second-lowest approval rating, at just 40 percent and was consistently deemed as less popular than her party by polls. To support that statement, opinion polls in September 1990 reported that ‘Labour had established a 14 percent lead over the Conservatives’. However the resignation of Geoffrey Howe was fatal to Thatcher’s premiership later, with Michael Heseltine’s challenge for the leadership of the Conservative party had completely destroyed Thatcher’s ability to stay at 10 Downing Street. It could be said that the Thatcherism still had a profound influence on British politics after Thatcher left office, as John Major sought to build upon her legacy by attempting to secure her legacy whilst smoothing over the rough edges. And more notably, Tony Blair’s New Labour was built upon Thatcher’s reforms such as the privatisation programme was left intact as Labour itself carried out mini privatisations such as air traffic control. Furthermore business and enterprise had been courted by New Labour, corporation tax cut and employee rights were strengthened rather than the ties with the Trade Unions. As this essay has provided arguments for the successes and the failures of Thatcherism and the Thatcher government, it without a doubt, highlights the unique political style and political substance that was present for over eleven years. It could be said that Thatcherism radically departed from the norms and traditions of British politics, especially after the post-war consensus. The policy in regards to the economy from the period of 1979 demonstrated a significant shift from accepting previous government’s Keynesianism orthodoxy to Thatcher’s belief in monetarism. The contrast between previous Labour governments and Thatcherism could not be sharper. The Labour party’s incentive was to nationalize more whereas it was the Conservatives that privatized industries with the individualistic approach enacted effectively under Thatcher. However the arrival of Thatcherism marked something which could be claimed as revolutionary, as Blair strategy was based upon third way politics. It could be said that Thatcherism was a success as the school of thought is still applied to today’s politics however times are once again changing in British politics, so the success of Thatcherism in the future is yet to be decided.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Salutary Neglect Overview

Salutary Neglect Overview The term salutary neglect stems from the colonial era. Even though England believed in a system of mercantilism where the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country, Sir Robert Walpole decided to try something different to stimulate commerce. A View of Salutary Neglect Walpole, the first Prime Minister of Great Britain, espoused a view of salutary neglect whereby the actual enforcement of external trade relations was lax. In other words, the British did not strictly enforce commerce laws with the colonies. As Walpole said, If no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish. This unofficial British policy was in effect from 1607 to 1763. The Navigation Act and Trading Companies, merchants and independent corporations went about their business in these colonies on their own without a lot of overlook from the British government.  The beginning of trade regulation started with the Navigation Act in 1651. This allowed goods to be transported to the American colonies on English ships and prevented other colonists from trading with anyone other than England. Passed but Not Heavily Enforced While there were several renditions of these acts, the policy was expanded to include certain products that were only allowed to be transported on English ships, such as indigo, sugar and tobacco products.  Unfortunately, the act was often not enforced due to difficulties with finding enough customs officials to handle the management.  Because of this, goods were often snuck in with other countries including the Dutch and the French West Indies.  This was the very beginning of the triangular trade between the North American colonies, the Caribbean, Africa and Europe. The Triangular Trade Britain had the upper hand when it came to the illegal triangular trade. Despite it going against the Navigation Acts, here are a few ways Britain benefited: The trade allowed New England merchants to get wealthy. In turn, merchants bought manufactured goods from the British.Despite Walpole attempting to solve this issue by offering positions of government, these officials granted had often taken bribes from merchants.The colonies were supplied with slaves on top of being given a market for raw goods.The colonies received finished European products that they were unable to make themselves. Calls for Independence The salutary neglect period ended as a consequence of the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War, from years 1755 to 1763. This caused a large war debt that the British needed to pay off, and thus the policy was destroyed in the colonies. Many believe that the French and Indian War affected the relationship between the British and the colonists by leading to the revolution. This is because the colonists were not worried about France if breaking away from Britain. Once the British government became stricter in their enforcement of commerce laws after 1763, protests and eventually calls for independence became more pronounced amongst the colonists. This would, of course, lead to the American Revolution.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Homework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 29

Homework - Essay Example However, as a Barnaby College graduate, I believe that you will be able to sail through the challenges jus like me. In my case, after graduation, I entered the job market, and later did my MBA at Harvard. Landing a job with the Flyover Airlines was a fantastic experience for me. While there, I applied all my knowledge and expertise, and due to my excellent performance, I quickly climbed up the career ladder to become the President of Flyover Airlines. While serving as the President of Flyover Airlines, I employed my innovativeness to develop new programs. Among them is the new service, AirTaxi. This employs small jets, and flies passengers at 20% more than the normal fare, as the flights are made on demand. Those of you that read last year’s issue of the International Airlines Magazine can testify that Flyover Airlines was named the Small Airliner of the year. This was all thanks to the new service, which I innovatively developed. Barnaby College emphasized and nurtured in me innovativeness, among other key skills. Therefore, my soon-to-be fellow alumni, go out there and make use of all the skills and knowledge you have acquired at Barnaby. Only through this way will you make your future to be unquestionably